via their own in-house staff and operations
by contracting a third party or organisation
through an entity that is council-controlled but is governed, managed and operated at arm’s-length through an independent board of directors.
Councils can hold or control any proportion of rights to appoint directors in a range of organisations , including:
Council Organisation (COs) - An entity is a CO when the council has the right to appoint fewer than 50 per cent of its directors . Currently, Auckland Council has more than 70 COs.
CCO - Entities in which the council has the right to appoint 50 percent or more of the directors are CCOs.
Substantive CCOs - Substantive CCOs are wholly-owned council entities responsible for delivering a significant service or activity on behalf of the council or owning or managing assets with a value of more than $10 million . A substantive CCO is only a concept in Auckland local government.
Council-controlled Trading Organisations -The council can also have a stake in organisations which trade with the purpose of making a profit. These CCOs are known as Council-controlled Trading Organisations (CCTO). Auckland Council currently has only one CCTO, a joint venture called Waste Disposal Services.