Compulsory element
 Both manuhiri and tangata whenua can say karakia to bring people together and focus on the occasion.
 A woman’s voice is the first to be heard at a pōwhiri. The karanga sets the process in action and establishes the reason for the powhiri.
 The exchange of information through the karanga gives the manuhiri safe passage to enter the marae. It affirms the gathering’s purpose, identifies who is coming and their intention. References to the fabric of creation and those who have passed on are woven to fashion a metaphoric rope which is cast to the visitors to bind them to their symbolic waka which is dragged ashore by the tangata whenua. The karanga is a lament and can be a very moving experience.
 Haka pōwhiri actions and words complement the imagery around dragging a waka and its crew ashore.
 A whaikorero’s purpose is to acknowledge and weave together past, present and future by acknowledging the source of creation, guardians, the hunga mate (the dead), the hunga ora (the living) and laying down the take or kaupapa (reason for the gathering).
 Paeke: The tangata whenua speak first, one orator following the next. The manuhiri then speak. When the last manuhiri orator finishes, the speaking goes back to the tangata whenua to complete the kōrero.
 Tū atu, tū mai: The tangata whenua speak first and then speakers alternate between tangata whenua and manuhiri. Tangata whenua give the final speech.
 Hongi is an ancient practice by which people greet each other through gently pressing noses and foreheads. Hands are often placed on forearms or shoulders, although it is more common now to accompany hongi with a rūrū (hand shake).